Other Skin Cancers
AFX (Atypical Fibroxanthoma):
A tumor common on the skin of the head, scalp and neck in older adults caused by sun damage or radiation. Lesions usually suggest malignancy because of the rapid growth (a few weeks or months. The lesions will appear as red, juicy, and dome shaped. Some lesions may be ulcerated. Treatment is tumor removal by simple excision or Mohs micrographic surgery.
DFSP (Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans):
A slow growing skin cancer, can go unnoticed for months to years. The first signs of DFSP are:
- A rough patch of skin
- Pimple-like growth
- No pain or tenderness
- Slight changes in the growth or patch
As the cancer grows the middle layer of skin starts to push on the top layer of skin, creating a hard or rubbery lump knows as a protuberan. The lump will continue to grow, stretching the skin and you may notice these signs of the affected skin:
- Now tender
- Cracking and bleeding
- A hard unmoving lump
Over more time, more lumps can appear and will grow rapidly. In adults the lumps will range from a violet color to reddish brown. In those younger the color can be blue to red in color. If pregnant the DFSP will grow even faster. DFSP is more common in the younger population between the ages of 20-50.
Merkel Cell Carcinoma(MCC):
A rare but dangerous skin cancer. MCC was not recognized until the 90s, when a new stain was developed that would differentiate between MCC and other cancers. Risk factors include:
- UV exposure
- Immune suppression
- Fair skin
- Age, over 50 years
In looking for MCC the first signs are:
- a firm, painless lesion in a sun exposed area
- Typically red, blue or skin colored
- Will vary in size, but average size is 1.7 cm, the diameter of a dime.
MCC is very lethal. Comparing MCC to Melanoma and non melanoma skin cancers, MCC is 30 times more rare, but twice as lethal. MCC has a one in three mortality rate, where melanoma is one in six mortality rate. Early detection and treatment are critical.
A form of cancer, characterized by abnormal, uncontrolled cellular growth forming a malignant tumor amongst the smooth muscle cells. Invading surrounding tissues and possibly spreading or metastasizing to other body sites by means of the bloodstream, lymph system or other means. A lelomyosarcoma can be found almost anywhere since smooth muscle is found all over the body.
The exact cause is unknown.
An aggressive, uncommon tissue cancer that appears in the lining of blood vessels. Angiosarcomas tend to recur locally and metastasize to further places in the body. Risk factors are:
- Lymphedema (collection of fluid causing swelling)
- Toxic exposure or radiotherapy
- Foreign bodies
- Environmental chemicals.
The mortality rate is high. Although they appear in all different sites and organs, they may occur in any region of the body. Of the various skin cancers, Angiosarcomas most commonly appear in the liver, breast, spleen, bone or heart. Clinical manifestations are as follows:
- Pathologic fractures, anemia, or hepatic dysfuncion
- bleeding, thrombocytopenia, or intravascular disseminated coagulation
- Compression of neurovascular structures causing pain
The causes of angiosarcoma is unknown, they may develop as a complication from a preexisting condition. Risk factors are:
- Radical mastectomy
- Foreign materials
- Environmental carcinogens
- Preexisting lesions
If you notice any suspicious lesions or are concerned about anything come in for a skin check!